Señor. el Doctor Iuan Luis Arias, dize… [A Memorial in Spanish, addressed to Philip III of Spain, urging the exploration and colonisation of the Southern Continent]. TORRES, Juan Luis ARIAS, de Loyola.

Señor… [Memorial urging the discovery of lands in the Southern Hemisphere]…
Señor. el Doctor Iuan Luis Arias, dize… [A Memorial in Spanish, addressed to Philip III of Spain, urging the exploration and colonisation of the Southern Continent].

Edinburgh: Murray and Cochran, 1773.

Quarto, 26 pp. and final leaf blank but for colophon; neat quarter calf binding.

Dalrymple's printing of the obscure Memorial identifying Torres Strait

Extremely rare: the separate printing arranged by Alexander Dalrymple of the important Arias Memorial, almost unknown until he rediscovered it, of great significance for the history of the Quiros and Torres expedition of 1606 and especially for the geography of Torres Strait. This is also a significant printing in the context of Cook's first voyage and its intentions, and subsequent controversy. Arias's Memorial to the King of Spain urged the discovery of lands in the Southern Hemisphere, partly for the sake of the conversion of its inhabitants to Christianity though such "worthy" intentions often masked an exploring nation's colonising ambitions. "Arias, a secular priest and friend of Quiros, was one of the leading cosmographers, mathematicians and astronomers of his time. The particular merit of this memorial… is that it shows the extent of contemporary knowledge and speculation in Spain on the existence of a mainland in the Southern Hemisphere" (Celsus Kelly).

Extremely rare: the separate printing arranged by Alexander Dalrymple of the important Arias Memorial, almost unknown until he rediscovered it, of great significance for the history of the Quiros and Torres expedition of 1606 and especially for the geography of Torres Strait. This is also a significant printing in the context of Cook's first voyage and its intentions, and subsequent controversy. Arias's Memorial to the King of Spain urged the discovery of lands in the Southern Hemisphere, partly for the sake of the conversion of its inhabitants to Christianity though such "worthy" intentions often masked an exploring nation's colonising ambitions. "Arias, a secular priest and friend of Quiros, was one of the leading cosmographers, mathematicians and astronomers of his time. The particular merit of this memorial… is that it shows the extent of contemporary knowledge and speculation in Spain on the existence of a mainland in the Southern Hemisphere" (Celsus Kelly).
The hydrographer Alexander Dalrymple saw a Spanish manuscript account of the voyage of Torres while he was in Madras, which convinced him of the existence of a strait of water south of New Guinea. He subsequently managed to get hold of a copy of Juan Luis Arias' Memorial 'in a very curious collection of original papers, in two volumes, taken from the archives of Spain'. He had purchased these two important volumes, which contained both manuscript and printed material, and which had once belonged to the library of 'the celebrated Colbert, the French Minister', from a bookseller in Covent Garden, after his return to England in 1765. Dalrymple's An account of the Discoveries made in the South Pacifick Ocean previous to 1764, printed in 1767 but not published until 1769, cited the Memorial as a source for both Quiros and Torres, and included a map which showed Torres' approximate course. A copy of the book was aboard Cook's Endeavour and played an influential part in the voyage, supposedly encouraging Cook to pass through Torres Strait. The subsequent publication of the official account of the Endeavour voyage led to a famous war of words involving Hawkesworth, Dalrymple, Cook, and Banks among others. In his Letter from Mr. Dalrymple to Dr. Hawkesworth of 1773 (to which Hawkesworth in turn replied in the second edition of the official account) Dalrymple promised to print the Arias Memorial in Spanish as evidence for his rebuttal of Hawkesworth's accusations.
At the time of its rediscovery, Dalrymple was virtually the only man in Europe who could have recognised the importance of the Memorial: Andrew Cook discusses "the significance of his discovery in 1765, at a London bookseller, of two composite volumes from the library of the seventeenth-century French minister Colbert. One of these volumes included a printed memorial of the 1630s sent by Juan Luis Arias to Philip III of Spain, incidentally summarising the routes followed by the 1606 expedition, particularly of Torres on the south coast of New Guinea after the separation. Torres' own relation of his voyage had fallen into obscurity in Spanish archives, leaving on maps only a tradition, without clear authority, of the separateness of New Guinea from land to the south. Dalrymple had seen, among papers in Madras, only a map of Torres' discoveries on the south coast of New Guinea, and the Arias Memorial confirmed for him Torres' track from the New Hebrides to Manila, as well as clarifying some of the obscurities of Torquemada's account of the early part of Quiros' voyage…" (An Account, 1996, p. 22).
From simple observation it is clear that the printing must have been very limited, as it is distinctly rare on the market today: in fact, this is the only copy that we have seen offered for sale. Andrew Cook points out (in private correspondence) that "Dalrymple seems only to have 'published' it by offering it in 1773, in the advertisement to his Letter to Dr Hawkesworth, as a free 'extra' to purchasers of the two-volume quarto Historical Collection of the Several Voyages and Discoveries. No copies of the memorial went to Nourse in 1775 with the stock of Dalrymple's publications - Nourse was to continue to sell for Dalrymple while the latter was absent in Madras - but then no copies of the Letter went to Nourse in 1775 either. Presumably Dalrymple had either exhausted or discarded the remaining stock of both… Though Arias has become interesting again since, I think its significance in the 1773 argument died with Hawkesworth, and I suggest any residual stock of a small printing may well have been made waste before April 1775…".
The original printing of the 1630s remains known from a handful of copies: the Colbert-Dalrymple copy was one of only four identified by Kelly, three in the British Library and one in Madrid.
Some of the information above has been sumamrised from Alexander Fry's Alexander Dalrymple and the Expansion of British Trade, who notes that 'Arias was a friend of Quiros. For background information on this memorial, see Celsus Kelly (ed.), La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo, Hakluyt Society, Cambridge, 1966, Vol. I, pp. 120-33. Dalrymple published the Spanish original of the Arias Memorial in Edinburgh in 1773. during his dispute with Hawkesworth, and translated part of it in his second letter to the same. Sir C. Markham (ed.), in The Voyages of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, 1595-1606, Hakluyt Society, London, 1904. Vol. II, Appendix VIII, pp. 517-36 also gives a translation of the complete Memorial'.

Provenance: Old imperfectly-inked Australian library stamp in margin of one leaf; private collection (Melbourne); Leonard Joel auction, 1994; Hordern House; private collection (Sydney).

Andrew Cook, 'Alexander Dalrymple: Research, Writing and Publication of the Account', pp. 15-47 of 'An Account of the Discoveries made in the South Pacifick Ocean', facsimile reprint, Sydney, 1996; Collingridge, Discovery, pp. 225-228; Kelly, Calendar of Documents, 833 and see, p.412; Major, Early Voyages to Terra Australis, 1859, pp. 1-30; Markham, II, 517-536.

Price (AUD): $36,000.00  other currencies     Ref: #4504965