An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe; with various Papers Relative to the Plague: Together with Further Observations on some Foreign Prisons and Hospitals; and additional remarks on the present state of those in Great Britain and Ireland. John HOWARD.
An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe; with various Papers Relative to the Plague: Together with Further Observations on some Foreign Prisons and Hospitals; and additional remarks on the present state of those in Great Britain and Ireland.
An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe; with various Papers Relative to the Plague: Together with Further Observations on some Foreign Prisons and Hospitals; and additional remarks on the present state of those in Great Britain and Ireland.

An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe…
An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe; with various Papers Relative to the Plague: Together with Further Observations on some Foreign Prisons and Hospitals; and additional remarks on the present state of those in Great Britain and Ireland.

London: J. Johnson, C. Dilly and T. Cadell, 1791.

Quarto, with 22 engraved plans and views (18 of them folding) and a large folding table; bound without the half-title in contemporary sprinkled calf, flat spine banded in gilt, red morocco label; an excellent copy.

Prisons, hulks, quarantine stations and mental hospitals

The second edition, with substantial additions, of Howard's second great book, published posthumously. The additions were made by John Aikin, as instructed by Howard, from his notes, in order to complete his life-work on the study of institutions of detention. This study took place at precisely the period of the transportation system and was of great consequence in beginning a more humane approach to all aspects of imprisonment and detention, from hulks and gaols to convict ships, quarantine stations, mental hospitals and the entire apparatus of transportation in general, including a re-examination of the philosophy behind institutions of secondary punishment.

The second edition, with substantial additions, of Howard's second great book, published posthumously. The additions were made by John Aikin, as instructed by Howard, from his notes, in order to complete his life-work on the study of institutions of detention. This study took place at precisely the period of the transportation system and was of great consequence in beginning a more humane approach to all aspects of imprisonment and detention, from hulks and gaols to convict ships, quarantine stations, mental hospitals and the entire apparatus of transportation in general, including a re-examination of the philosophy behind institutions of secondary punishment.

Following the publication of The State of Prisons, in 1785 John Howard began the final phase of his work, journeying for fifteen months throughout western and southern Europe inspecting Lazarettos (which term encompassed mental hospitals as well as quarantine stations and hospitals for the treatment of plague victims or "lazars"). After the first edition of this work appeared in 1789 he set out again for the continent, travelling through the Netherlands, Germany and Poland, but dying of fever in southern Russia, where he was buried.

Howard's work as a whole represents a huge leap forward in the development of the public health movement, and had ramifications throughout the institutional world. His newly humane approach included a significant new approach to hygiene and cleanliness, which would impact on the general management of ships as well of course as the day-to-day running of convict vessels.

During his extraordinarily active life Howard had 'travelled approximately 50,000 miles, notebook in hand, visiting prisons, hospitals, lazarettos, schools and workhouses, speaking with authorities, measuring rooms and even tasting the provisions. His life can be described as one extended tour of prisons and hospitals. His investigations culminated in the publication of the State of the Prisons in England and Wales (1777) and An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe (1789). These volumes presented the layout and organisation of prisons and lazarettos, as well as conditions inmates faced, whether good or bad' (Science Museum, London; online resource).

The Howard League for Penal Reform, still an active and influential body, carries on his work today.

From an entirely different point of view, an oddly interesting note appears here in the "Directions to the Book-binder": "N.B. I would just hint to the book-binder, that as this work is printed with a full page, in order to be uniform with my last publication, it may be proper to cut off as little as possible at the top and bottom of the leaves".

Garrison & Morton, 1601.

Price (AUD): $2,250.00  other currencies Ref: #4002621

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